Geography 100

Final Exam Review Questions

The format of the Final Exam is 10 multiple choice questions, 10 matching (word bank), 4 short answer and a pick of 1 essay question from a selection of 3. The exam covers Lecture #11 Hurricanes/Severe Weather through Glaciers in Lecture #20.


The time limit is 1:50 minutes (likely you will only need 1 hour). You may bring a calculator.

This practice exam is the same format as the actual exam and you should take it as if it is the real thing.

Try to do this exam so that you know how to budget your time and what to study.

Read questions carefully.

Good luck!


Section A: Multiple Choice (10 pts)


Circle the best answer


1.  The _______ stage of a thunderstorm is most likely to produce a tornado.

a. dissipation

b. cumulus

c. mature

d. cirrus


2.  The Intertropical Convergence Zone helps produce this climate zone:

a. A (Tropical)

b. B (Dry)

c. C (Midlatitude)

d. E (Polar)


3.  Over the past 150 years, global warming has occurred everywhere on Earth: this statement is ______.

a. True

b. False

c. uncertain, scientists do not know


4.  The proportion of all fresh water on Earth is about ______ of all water on Earth.

a. 40%

b. 50%

c. 10%

d. 3%


5.  The Mississippi River basin has the shape of a _______ type of stream pattern.

a. dendritic

b. trellis

c. continental

d. maritime


6.  Underground water is stored in ________.

a. regolith

b. aquifers

c. bedrock

d. watersheds


7.  The ability of water to flow through soil is controlled by its _____.

a. color

b. texture

c. permeability


8.  The crust of the Earth "floats" on top if this plastic-like flexible layer.

a. asthenosphere

b. outer core

c. thermosphere

d. rift zone


9.  The Niagara Falls is an example of this type of feature.

a. braided stream

b. nick point

c. basin divide

d. delta


10.  The breakup of exposed bedrock by freezing and thawing of water in cracks is a type of _____.

a. weathering

b. mass wasting

c. denudation

d. both a and c are correct


























Section B: Matching (10 pts)

Clearly identify the capital letter of the term that best fits the blanks in the questions below. You are given a word bank of 20 possible answers to 10 missing terms (unclear answers will not count for credit).

No terms from the word bank are used more than one (1) time to answer the missing blanks.


Word Bank:

A. scouring

B. D

C. ice cores

D. ocean currents

E. glacier

F. E

G. elevation

H. volcanic activity

I. El Niño

J. written records

K. La Niña

L. spit

M. plate tectonics

N. erratic

O. sand bar

P. deposition

Q. weathering

R. continental drift

S. hurricanes

T. tornadoes

Answers to questions below; fill in the letter next to the question #:













1. Cape Cod and much of South East Massachusetts formed about 10,000 years ago as a _______ retreated northward.

2. This modern theory correctly describes why the crust of the Earth is slowly evolving.

3. Freezing of water between cracks in rocks is part of this process that breaks down the solid Earth.

4. Unusually warm water off the coast of Peru could be an indication of _________.

5. The sediment (sand and other small particles) dropping to the bottom of the stream as it slows down is called ______.

6. Which Köppen climate zone does not occur in the Southern Hemisphere.

7. This climate control keeps Scandinavia (northern Europe) warmer during the winter.

8. The Saffir-Simpson scale refers to ________.

9. Long-term climate change of the past 100 thousand years is extracted by scientists from ______ .

10. This type of coastal landform extends from the mainland into the ocean ________.

Section C: Short Answer (10 pts)


1. (5 pts) Plot the information in the table on the climograph below:

    a. The maximum temperature is __________ °F and occurred in the month of __________________.

    b. The maximum precipitation is __________ inches and occurred in the month of __________________.

    c. The total precipitation for the year is ________________ inches.

    d. The average annual temperature is ________________ °F.

    e. Which of the 6 basic climate zones (A, B, C, D, E, or H) best describes this location.  __________















































3. (2 pts) The three plots below show the global mean annual temperatures over the past 150 years. 

What is the difference between the amount of warming in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres?

Explain in a few sentences what is causing the difference.














4. (1 pt)          In the diagram below, name the type of rock formed in the location of the box. Fill in the box with the type of rock.

5. (2 pts) Name and define two types of coastal features that form by the transport of sand.














Section D: Essay (10 pts)

Chose one (1) of the following topics to write an essay on (only three of these will show up on the final exam). You will be given two blank pages on which to answer one essay. You may draw diagrams for explanation.  You are advised to study at least three of the six questions before taking the exam.

Your essay should include at least 3 paragraphs so that you:

a.                  Define the underlined terms in the question (this should be done at the beginning: 3-5 sentences)

b.                  Discuss how the topic relates to changes in patterns related to physical geography. Relate your answer to changes in space, place, and time and discuss why is what where and so what? (3 to 5 sentences)

Provide your geographic insight on the relationship of the topic to physical and/or human geography. Include the benefits and hazards to humans and our environment. Best answers would base insight (impressions) on facts from the book and lecture.  (2 to 5 sentences)


Questions to chose from:

1. Discuss the ENSO: include a description of how the two components of ENSO work together to cause wind shifts at the Equator. Discuss at least 3 impacts of ENSO. What is a teleconnection:  give an example? Be sure to conclude with your geographic opinion of this topic.


2. Discuss  at least four (4) controls on climate. Give examples of each one. How is the climate in Massachusetts affected by each of these controls. Be sure to conclude with your geographic opinion of this topic.


3. Discuss “Global Warming,” including: greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, the time period of the enhanced greenhouse effect, the differences between the warming in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and the extent of warming/cooling for different regions on Earth. Include a discussion of the outcome (consequences) of this global warming. Include a brief discussion of how sure (certain) the experts are about global warming. What can be done to decrease “global warming”. Be sure to conclude with your geographic opinion of this topic.


4. Define the rock cycle. What are the three primary types of rocks formed by this cycle? Define plate tectonics. Discuss the three basic types of plate boundaries formed between moving plates. Which type causes mountains to build? Which causes Earth Quakes in California? Which causes the sea-floor to spread appart?


5. Discuss how weathering and mass wasting affect the rock cycle. Define weathering and mass wasting. Discuss the 3 types of weathering (mechanical, chemical, and biological) and include examples of each one. Finally, describe how creep, falls, flows, slides and slumps cause mass wasting. Be sure to conclude with your geographic impression (opinion) of this topic.


6. Describe the formation of glaciers and what causes them to advance (grow) and recede (melt).  Why are mountain glaciers important for people living in the B climate zone.  Name two landforms produced after a glacier melts back toward the poles.  What will happen to glaciers and global sea-level if Global Warming continues.  Be sure to conclude with your geographic opinion of this topic.

















Section A

Section B

1. c

1. P

2. a

2. M

3. b

3. Q

4. d

4. I

5. a

5. E

6. b

6. B

7. c

7. D

8. a

8. S

9. b

9. C

10. d

10. L