Glossary of Terms

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aesthetic reading—in transactional theory, a type of reading in which attention is

focused on “what is being lived through, the idea and feelings being evoked during the

transaction” (Rosenblatt, 1978).

 

 capacity—combines two separate but interrelated concepts, that of will and skill. If the

child does not have the will to learn, there is no interest, no motivation, no focused attention,

 and few opportunities for the child to develop higher order reasoning.

 

 cognition—the process or result of recognizing, interpreting, judging, and reasoning.

 

 comprehension—a constructive process of synthesis and putting word meanings together in

special ways, much as individual bricks are combined in the construction of a house.

 

 consolidated phase—the automatic stage of reading where students are able to identify

the words as a whole or through rapid recognition of chunks within the word.

 

   cryptanalytic intent—the realization by the reader that there is a system to be mastered.

 

data analysis—1.  making sense out of massive amounts of information

2.      want to reduce volume of information or organize it

3.      you find ways of identifying significant patterns of information

4.      from the patterns, you construct a framework—“What does the data/

framework reveal?”

5.      internal validity is the accuracy of the research;ex: through triangulation

6.      external validity—a. discuss limited generalizability of findings

          b. replicate the study to see if the same results

              are obtained

                     (“All knowledge is local.”—pp. 72-73, HRR)

 In qualitative studies, cannot generalize the findings—very limited.

In quantitative, can generate the findings.

1.      case study--The purpose of a case study is viewing social reality. It examines the social unit as whole

      unit (a person, family or social group).  The purpose is to understand the life cycle or an important part

      of the life cycle.

2.      It probes deeply and analyzes interactions between the factors that explain present status or that influence

      change or growth.

3.      A case study is a longitudinal growth that shows changes over time.

4.      A case study is not about a person but a kind of person. Ex: “What happens to honors students at BSC in

      their first year of teaching?”

5.      A case study is a prototype for a category of individuals.

6.      A selection of the student of the case—typical of all subject (that you wish to

generalize about.)

7.      Data gathering:

a.)    observation of physical characteristics, social qualities or behavior

b.)    interviews with subjects, relatives, teachers

c.)    questionnaires from psychological tests

d.)    recorded data from schools or clinics

8.      A single case study is an analysis in depth.

                     Often used in medical research

 

    data collection—3 ways:

1.      observations—detailed notes of behaviors, events and contexts

2.      interviews—try to find out what’s in someone else’s mind, therefore,

interviews are often open-ended

3.      a review of documents, ex: minutes of meeting, student documents (work),

technical reports, speeches

 

  decoding—in relation to reading is the process of translating printed words into

       spoken words. It is not necessary for the “spoken words” to be actually uttered aloud.

 

Developmental Reading Assessment--The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA), developed by

      Joetta Beaver (1988), is a measurement tool used by teachers who believe that reading involves meaning, language

      context, prediction, anticipation and graphophonics (Williams, 1999).
Since the DRA is presently the closest assessment to the actual reading process, teachers can use the information

      to not only monitor student progress, but to learn what their next teaching move should be. The DRA provides

      teachers with information regarding which strategies the student is using and which strategies need to be reviewed.

     Additionally, teachers can determine if students need instruction in areas of comprehension such as retelling, adding

     details, sequencing events, and main ideas (Williams, 1999)

 

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)--is a set of one-minute standardized measures of skills,

      individually administered, which Good and Kaminski (2003) feel underlie early reading success. They claim that

      these assessments will predict how well children will do in reading comprehension by the end of third grade, yet they

     do not include one subtest to assess comprehension.

 

Early Reading Intervention (ERI)-- originally known as Project Optimize, is a scripted program designed for children

     who need early, intensive intervention in phonological awareness, letter names, letter sounds, word reading, spelling,

     and simple-sentence reading. Daily 30-minute lessons include 15 minutes of phonological and alphabetical understanding

     and 15 minutes of handwriting letters and spelling. There are 126 lessons. In November 2002, the Project Optimize

     became the Scott-Foresman Early Reading Intervention Program, published by Scott-Foresman (Scott-Foresman, n.d.).

 

 efferent  reading—a type of reading in which “the attention is focused on abstracting

out, analyzing, and structuring what is to be retained after the reading, as, e.g.,

information, logical argument, or instructions for action” (Rosenblatt, 1991).

 

Elkonin boxes—a phonological technique developed by Elkonin in which students say

a word slowly while they push their fingers or counters into sections of a drawn segmented box, listening for

sounds and writing the letters for each sound in the drawn segmented box.

 

 full alphabetic phase/cipher phase—students use all the letters and sounds to identify

words, engaging in either letter-sound analysis or in the use of analogies to identify the

whole words.

 

linguistics—the study of the nature and structure of language and languages.

 

   metacognition—awareness and knowledge of one’s mental processes such that one can

          monitor, regulate, and direct them to a desired end; self-mediation

 

   metacognitive awareness—in reading, knowing when what one is reading makes sense by

          monitoring and controlling one’s own comprehension; metacomprehension

 

OERI—Office of Educational Research and Improvement

 

phonemic awareness--Phonemic awareness is the awareness of the sounds (phonemes) that make up

       spoken words.

 

phonetic cue reading/partial alphabetic reading—students use some partial sound

information in the word, such as an initial or final sound to decode words.

 

phonological memory—short-term memory for sound-base information and is typically

measured by immediate recall of verbally presented material.

 

 phonological naming—refers to the efficiency of retrieval of phonological information

from permanent memory.

 

 phonological sensitivity—the ability to detect and manipulate the sound structure of oral

language.

 

 pragmatic literacy—literacy that “varies according to cultural demands and often

includes writing, numeracy, and document processing abilities.”

 

pragmatics—in linguistics, the study of the choices of language persons make in social

         interaction and of the effects of these choices on others (Crystal, 1987).

 

Pre-alphabetic stage—students are using the visual representation (configuration) of

words, not letters or sounds to decode words.

  psychosociolinguistics—the interdisciplinary field of psychology and linguistics in which language
           behavior    is examined. Psycholinguistics includes such areas of inquiry as language acquisition,
           conversational analysis, and the sequencing of themes and topics in discourse.

  reading--Reading is a complex system of deriving meaning from print that requires all of the following: the    

           development and maintenance of a motivation to read, the development of appropriate active

           strategies to construct meaning from print, sufficient background information and vocabulary to foster  

           reading comprehension, the ability to read fluently, the ability to decode unfamiliar words, and the

           skills and knowledge to understand how phonemes or speech sounds are connected to print
           (International Reading Association, 1999).

 

  Reading Recovery--Reading Recovery (RR), developed by Marie Clay, is a 12-20 week accelerated
          program designed to move struggling first grade readers in a short time from the bottom of their class to
          the average (Lyons, 1998; Swartz & Klein, 1996). At the end of the RR program, children develop a  
          self-extending system that uses a variety of strategies to read increasingly difficult text and to
          independently write their own messages (Clay, 1991). These outcomes are sustained over time (Lyons,

      
1998; Shanahan & Barr, 1995; Swartz & Klein, 1996). RR provides one-to-one tutoring, five days per

         week, 30 minutes a day, by a specially trained teacher. RR uses supportive conversations between
      
teacher and child as the primary basis of instruction. 

 

  schema—1. a generalized description, plan, or structure; 2. a system of cognitive

          structures stored in memory that are abstract representations of events, objects, and

          relationships in the world; 3. in Piagetian theory, an image representing reality that is held

          in thought but not transformed through thought.

 

 schema theory—a view that comprehension depends on integrating new knowledge with a

network of prior knowledge.

 

self-regulation—the child’s capacity to plan, guide, and monitor his or her behavior

          from within and flexibly according to changing circumstances.

 

   simultaneous replication—different investigators conducting the same study on different

             subjects with the same problem at a different location and at the same time.

 

   systematic replication—different investigators conducting the same study on different

             subjects with the same problem at a different location and at a later time.

 

transactional theory—the view that meaning is constructed in communication

through language by an active, fluid interchange of ideas with a given context,

as between reader and text or between speaker and audience.

 

 triangulation—data are verified by agreement with other data from other sources or a

different data collector or other procedures. Triangulation makes a study internally valid.

 

triangulation of assessment—you try to get same results 3 different ways or have someone

else look at data or do both. Ex: questionnaire, survey, interviews

 

Vygotsky’s Theory—that higher-order functions (such as problem solving, reasoning,

            planning, remembering, and communicating) develop out of social interaction.

 

Zone of Actual Development—refers to what the child can do independently.

 

Zone of Promimal Development—those functions that are in the process of maturation.

         The ZPD has three overlapping phases: a.) assistance provided by a more capable other;

          b.) transition from other-assistance to self-assistance; and c.) assistance provided by the

          self.

 

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