Sources for the Investiture Controversy

St-Omer 698

home     |     Timeline of key events in Church Reform and the Investiture Controversy (ca. 1050‒1125)

1046 Synod of Sutri: three rival popes are deposed
1049‒1054 Pope Leo IX (Bruno of Toul)
1049 Council of Reims
1053 (Jun.) Battle of Civitate
1054 Schism with Eastern Church at Constantinople
1056 (5 Oct.) Death of Emperor Henry III
1056‒1065 Minority of Henry IV
1057 Pataria movement first active in Milan
1057‒1058 Pope Stephen IX (Frederick of Lorraine)
1059‒1061 Pope Nicholas II (Gerard of Burgundy)
1059 Papal election decree establishes role of the cardinals
1059 Treaty of Melfi between Nicholas II and the Normans of southern Italy
1061‒1073 Pope Alexander II (Anselm of Lucca)
1061‒1064 Cadalus of Parma (anti-pope)
1066 (27 Jun.) Assassination of Arialdo, leader of the Milanese Pataria
1066 (14 Oct.) Norman conquest of England
1073‒1075 Saxon rebellion against Henry IV
1073‒1085 Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand)
1075 Lenten Synod at Rome (possibly first lay invesiture prohibition)
1075 Henry IV appoints Tedald archbishop of Milan as well as bishops of Fermo and Spoleto
1075 (Dec.) Gregory VII's letter (3.10) to Henry 
1076 (24 Jan.) Synod of Worms: German bishops call for Gregory to step down
1076 (14‒22 Feb.) Lenten Synod at Rome: Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV and bishops at Worms
1076 (27 Apr.) Bishop William of Utrecht dies a month after pronouncing excommunication of Gregory VII
1076 (Oct.) Henry negotiates with princes at Tribur-Oppenheim
1077 (25‒28 Jan.) Encounter at Canossa
1077 Ramihrd executed as a heretic at Cambrai; Gregory VII excommunicates those involved
1077 (13 Mar.) Election of Rudolf of Rheinfelden as (anti-)king at Forchheim
1078 (7 Aug.) Battle of Mellrichstadt
1080 (27 Jan.) Battle of Flarchheim
1080 (Mar.) Second excommunication of Henry IV
1080 (25 Jun.) Council of Brixen: Gregory VII deposed and Wibert of Ravenna elected as Clement III
1080 (15 Oct.) Battle of the Elster: Rudolf dies of wounds received
1080 (Oct.) Battle of Volta Mantovana
1081 (Aug.) Hermann of Salm elected as king by the opposition to Henry IV
1081‒1084 Henry IV's second Italian expedition
1084 (Mar.) Henry IV enters Rome, installs Clement III and is crowned emperor
1084 (2 Jul.) Battle of Sorbaria
1084 (Jul.) Norman sack of Rome; Gregory VII flees to Salerno
1085 (25 May) Death of Gregory VII
1086 (11 Aug.) Battle of Pleichfeld
1086‒1087 Pope Victor III (Desiderius of Montecassino)
1087 (30 May) Conrad, son of Henry IV, crowned co-king of Germany
1088 (28 Sept.) Death of Hermann of Salm (anti-king)
1088‒1099 Pope Urban II (Odo of Lagery)
1090‒1111 Ivo, bishop of Chartres
1090‒1097 Henry IV's third Italian expedition
1093‒1109 Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury
1093 Conrad, son of Henry IV, rebels against his father in Italy
1095 (1‒7 Mar.) Council of Piacenza: Reform program renewed
1095 (Nov.) Council of Clermont: First Crusade is announced
1099 (Jul.) First Crusaders capture Jerusalem from the Fatimid Caliphate
1099‒1118 Pope Paschal II (Ranierius of San-Clemente)
1100 (Aug.) Henry I becomes king of England after the death of his brother, William Rufus
1100 (Sept.) Death of Wibert/Clement III
1100‒1101 Theoderic of Albano chosen to succeed Clement III
1102 Albert of Silva Candida chosen as (anti-)pope by cardinals supportive of Clement III
1103 (Jan.) Imperial Peace declared at Mainz
1105 Rebellion of Henry V against his father
1105 (23 Dec.) Henry V imprisons his father near Mainz
1105‒1111 Maginulf of San-Angelo chosen as (anti-)pope
1106 (22 Mar.) Battle of Visé: Henry IV's forces defeat those of his son
1106 (7 Aug.) Death of Henry IV
1106 Investiture settlement in France
1106 (Aug.) Louis VI becomes king of France after his father's death
1107 (Aug.) Investiture settlement in England
1111 (Feb.) Negotiations at Sutri between Paschal II and Henry V
1111 (Apr.) Henry V extracts the "praevilegium" from Paschal II and is crowned emperor
1114 (Jan.) Marriage of Henry V and Mathilda of England
1115 (24 Jul.) Death of Mathilda, countess of Tuscany
1115 Death of Tanchelm, wandering preacher active the Low Countries
1118‒1119 Pope Gelasius II (John of Gaeta)
1118 Mauritius Burdinus of Braga is established as (anti-)pope Gregory VIII by Henry V
1119‒1124 Pope Calixtus II (Guy, archbishop of Vienne)
1119 Council of Reims-Mouzon
1122 (Sept.) Concordat of Worms
1123 First Lateran Council ratifies the Concordat
1124 Death of Calixtus II
1125 Death of Henry V